Chapter

-1 Introduction

-2 Sugars are common in the cell

-3 Nucleic acids store information and process it

-4 Proteins are made of amino acids

-5 The primary structure of proteins is the amino acid sequence

-6 Secondary structure is the local geometry of the protein

-7 Tertiary structure is the 3D structure of individual polypeptides

-8 Quaternary structure is the total complex of a functional protein

-9 Lipids are the building blocks of membranes

-10 Small molecules are also important in the cell

-11 The cell is organized into functional units

-12 Membranes surround the cell and hold it in

-13 Membranes are a selective barrier

-14 Membranes can help generate energy

-15 Membranes are also important in their own synthesis and can fold inward for specialized functions

-16 The cytoplasm is the area inside the membrane

-17 Enzymes serve as catalysts in the cytoplasm

-18 The cell DNA is organized into a nucleoid

-19 Transcription and translation occur on the surface of the nucleoid

-20 Translation involves messenger RNA

-21 Ribosomes are composed of RNA and protein

-22 Transfer RNA is the ferry for amino acids

-23 Inclusions and other internal structures are found in many prokaryotic cells

-24 The periplasm is between the cytoplasmic and outer membranes in gram-negative bacteria

-25 The cell wall surrounds and holds in the microbe

-26 Some bacteria lack cell walls

-27 The cell surface extends into the environment

-28 Flagella are one type of structure used for motility

-29 Advantages of motility

-30 Some bacteria move by gliding motility

-31 Pili and fimbriae are involved in adhesion, motility and DNA exchange

-32 Bacterial cells are often covered in glycocalyx

-33 Bacteria can exist in different cell states

-34 Endospores are very resistant structures

-35 Some microbes make other types of spores

-36 Heterocysts are differentiated cells that specialize in nitrogen fixation

-37 Archaea, a different type of microbe

-38 The major differences between Archaea and other domains of life

-39 Eukaryotic cells have much in common with prokaryotic cells

-40 Things that are different between eukaryotes and prokaryotes

-41 Unique structures in eukaryotes

-42 Eukaryotic cells absorb things by endocytosis

-43 The nucleus holds the cells genetic material in eukaryotes

-44 Mitochondria and plastids are organelles of energy generation in eukaryotic cells

-45 The implications of eukaryotic structures on their growth

-46 Summary

Subscribe to the Book

You need to register first before you can subscribe to the book. To do this go to the registration page